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The most commonly cited OSHA standard is 29 CFR 1910 Subpart D, Walking-Working Surfaces. It’s not surprising: the biggest causes of death in construction are falls and being struck by an object, both of which the standard tries to prevent.
Like much of the OSHA regulations, it tends to spell out the common sense approach. Railing, scaffolds, ladders, etc need to be well put together and guard against objects rolling off and smacking someone. People high up need harnesses and safety lines so they are not one slip away from a splat, and the harnesses need to be inspected just like a parachute. Lots of explicit listing of just how big a railing needs to be and what the spacing needs to be, etc. Like nearly every standard, it begins with a set of definitions for all of the words / concepts specific to the standard. For example: