Tag: CO2

A Sublime Way to Chill Out


Dry Ice pellets

Dry Ice pellets

Sublime has a number of meanings, such as lofty, noble, above the rest.  However, in the world of chemistry, sublime means to go directly from solid to gas, do not pass liquid, do not collect in a flask.  The classic example of this is dry ice, solid carbon dioxide.

Carbon dioxide gas is everywhere (a fact that sends Al Gore into conniptions) as the product of combustion and biological use of carbon sources like sugars and fats. This means it is easily available for scientific study. As scientists sought to chill this gas, they found that they could not liquefy it at atmospheric pressure, no matter how much they cooled it down. Liquid carbon dioxide only exists at high pressures. That means the solid left no liquid behind as it sublimed – thus the name dry ice.

Dry ice is in common use as the cheapest way to get temperatures well below freezing. Dry ice sublimes at −78.5°C (−109.3°F) which has a wide range of uses – including ice cream and fog machines. (Be careful with the fog – it has elevated CO2 levels and is dangerous without good ventilation.) Two of these uses are ones I encounter regularly in the lab.

Obsolete Climate Science on CO2


The incoming Trump administration has promised dramatic transformations on many vital domestic issues. The best gauge of this development is the fierce level of opposition his policies have generated from Democratic stalwarts. One representative screed is a New York Times Op-Ed by Professors Michael Greenstone and Cass Sunstein, who lecture the incoming president on climate change: “Donald Trump Should Know: This is What Climate Change Costs Us.”

Greenstone and Sunstein have a large stake in the game: During their years in the first Obama administration, they convened an interagency working group (IWG) drawn from various federal agencies that determined that the social cost of carbon (SCC)—or the marginal cost of the release of a ton of carbon into the atmosphere—should be estimated at about $36 per ton (as of 2015). Choose that number and there is much justification for taking major policy steps to curb the emission of carbon dioxide. Greenstone and Sunstein hoped that the working group process would draw on the “latest research in science and economics,” and establish the claimed costs by “accounting for the destruction of property from storms and floods, declining agricultural and labor productivity, elevated mortality rates and more.”

Their effort should be dismissed as a rousing failure, and as an affront to the scientific method that they purport to adopt in their studies. The first error is one of approach. The worst way to get a full exchange of views on the complex matter of global warming is to pack the IWG entirely with members from the Obama administration, all surely preselected in part because they share the president’s exaggerated concerns with the problem of global warming. The only way to get a full and accurate picture of the situation is to listen to dissenters on global warming as well as advocates, which was never done. After all, who should listen to a “denier”?

Welcome to the Harvard Lunch Club Political Podcast for December 20, 2016, it’s the Electoral College Edition of the podcast…only it’s not! It is really the Judy Curry podcast where we talk with the noted climatologist and courageous skeptic about the details – we’re talking details here – of the climate alarmist argument.

The HLC podcast is brought to you by Donors Trust, by Patriot Mobile and by our friends at SimpliSafe.

Member Post


Inspired by a post that referenced how environmental alarmists lie about most everything they say, I thought I would add this for your entertainment. Carbon dioxide, CO2, the most dreaded gas of the environmentalists, is in fact the most life giving substance in the world. Especially if you count animal or plant life of similar […]

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