In this episode of Constitutionally Speaking, Jay and Luke discuss the first two weeks of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where the nationalists — led by James Madison and James Wilson — make remarkable headway in crafting a new government in late May and early June 1787. Their vision is one of a national union, centered around a bicameral legislature that, by and large, is only checked by the president and the courts. Importantly, they also call for a radical innovation — for the document to be ratified by state conventions chosen by the people. Yet even in these early days, there is a sticking point — namely, what to do about the Senate. A narrow majority favors apportioning Senate seats according to population, but the small states vehemently object, and by the middle of June they are ready with an alternative plan of government.