America Needs a Renaissance

 

Progressives have been working for a long time to change the culture from the inside out. No revolution necessary.

Just run for political office on a moderate political platform, then change the very structure and meaning of government once in office. Just make sure children spend ever increasing hours in schools at an ever younger age, then teach them – again and again and again– how to become global citizens. Just use movies and television shows to make conservatives look foolish and mean. Just emphasize the “news” that makes liberal politicians look good. Just create a bureaucratic super-structure that can promote the agenda, even when conservatives are in office. Just marginalize the Western tradition, the founding ideas, and the great books and marginalize professors and teachers who take them seriously. Once you’ve done all this, claim to be the only able representatives of America’s intellectual, artistic, and literary life (Conservatives, by contrast, can then be portrayed as narrow-minded capitalists with little regard for culture.)

There you have it. You’ve not only transformed America; you’ve convinced much of America that you are the only ones sensitive and smart enough to guide it. You are the new elite, and your conservative opponents even do you the favor of calling you such. But the “culture” you created isn’t working out so well. A cursory look at our movies, our television shows, our anxious and overwhelmed children and teenagers, our pathologies, our addictions, our dearth of historical knowledge, our dumbed-down society, our increased willingness to let the end justify the means and to find excuses for irresponsible, violent and abusive behavior, reveals that we are a culture in trouble.

Years ago, I realized the depth of change in our schools and institutions and saw how it was transforming childhood. I kept asking friends, “Shouldn’t we protest when schools subject our children to indoctrination exercises, and routinely send teachers to seminars on how to promote social and political causes? Shouldn’t we question history textbooks that are so thoroughly re-written that the founding principles, the birth of the United States, and the dangers of communism and fascism are all but forgotten? What will happen to our country when these kids reach voting age?” But most parents seemed more concerned about their children’s outward displays of accomplishment than about their children’s actual moral and intellectual advancement. As long as their children were getting good grades, excelling in “activities,” and building good resumes, parents didn’t want to rock the boat.

Thus, American schools choose curriculums with immunity. Captive students are continually reminded of the low points of American history and taught to look at American history “critically.” They receive little, if any, instruction on the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, or the spirit of liberty. American society, they are told, is still dominated by racism, sexism and class distinctions. Classic literature is replaced with ‘edgy’ works that drive home the same negative message. In multicultural festivals and in “cultural studies” textbooks, however, students experience upbeat portrayals of other cultures. Little or nothing is said about the oppression, poverty and restrictions on freedom in many of the far-off lands they celebrate.

Rather than being permitted to appreciate that America, at its best, unleashes human potential and champions human rights, students are asked to identify their “cultural roots,” the implication being that any “roots” worth having are non-American ones. The modern concept of cultural identity thus, ironically, contributes to children’s sense of uprootedness. It takes the ground out from under them by implying that the ground they are standing on is not theirs. It belongs to some “other” (i.e., the affluent white male). Children are taught to seek their identity as a distinct caste – resisting and even despising the American norm. That this is the teaching of alienation and that it is particularly discouraging to children in our inner cities is rarely addressed. As conservatives reach out to ethnic groups, they must address the problem of an education that denies our common American bond.

Alongside of the program for political change is the program for moral change, and it relies upon similar tactics: Use the media; make anyone who doesn’t agree with the wholesale rejection of tradition look mean and stupid; teach children to question the outmoded ‘values” of their parents. Toward this end, saturate society with so much crudeness and crassness that we’re finally incapable of being shocked. Mock the idea of virtue. After all, how much change can be achieved if people don’t embrace the idea that each culture defines its own good — and that the current culture’s definition is the best so far?

I was going to title this piece, “It’s Our Turn to Change the Culture.” But change is easy. A renaissance is going to be hard. We must study the best traditions for inspiration, while being open to the best innovations. We must seek and find intellectual, cultural, political, and moral rebirth. It’s time for people who take the lessons of history and the idea of America seriously to step up and speak up –even if it requires questioning those “elite” universities we’d like our children to attend. The answer to the conservative’s current quandary is not to be more current. It is to be more brave.

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  1. Profile photo of William McClain Inactive

    Fantastic, and exactly what conservatism should be thinking about all the time.

    I think a big part of it will begin in a forgotten field, philosophy. The cultural dearth we experience now is as much a spiritual dearth, and the reduction of people’s spiritual lives into mere ideology. At the same time, speech and spiritual expression are reduced to merely ironic literature, open to “literature criticism” – as if my ideas were merely a bit of fiction to be assigned a cover value. These are the most deadening aspects of modern philosophy – the politicization of spirit and the economizing of ideas.

    To effect renaissance, conservative thinkers need to build real and meaningful critiques of these philosophical shortcomings that form the basis of new arts and sciences; the human spirit needs to be re-enlivened as something other than a “Zoon Politikon;” freedom and morality need to be seen as the crucially interdependent rather than seen at odds; language and ideas need to be given a new strength to stand in for the human personality.

    In my opinion, the place to begin is a critique of William James’ Pragmatism and a renewed use of classical literature when we argue and educate.

    • #1
    • November 9, 2012 at 2:43 am
  2. Profile photo of Stu In Tokyo Member

    Wonderful piece, thank you from the bottom of my broken heart for this!

    • #2
    • November 9, 2012 at 3:32 am
  3. Profile photo of Percival Thatcher

    At work one day, a foreign-born engineer asked a question about a point of American history. I answered, and while doing so noticed that a few of the younger guys were listening as if they had never heard the whole story of Paul Revere’s ride (Revere was captured by the British. His associate Billy Dawes lost his pursuers, but lost his horse as well, and had to double back. Dr. Samuel Prescott, a chance encounter on the road who was returning home after “entertaining” a ladyfriend at 1:00 AM, made it to Concord. Meanwhile, under questioning, Revere warned the officer in command of the patrol that the guns, drums, and bells they could hear meant that their purpose had been discovered and they would be anything but lonely when the sun came up.) History of the Revolutionary period began and ended with privileged slave-owning white men.

    Teach them history: all of it. Don’t bowdlerize the bad, but don’t excise the good, either. It is very hard to subjugate people who know that the blood of heroes courses through their veins.

    Oh, and math too – at least past the 7th grade level.

    • #3
    • November 9, 2012 at 5:39 am
  4. Profile photo of Devereaux Inactive

    Once again, Ms. Pierce – smoking hot presentation. You might consider collecting these pieces you’ve submitted into a collection of essays.

    Elsewhere Rachel Lu has proposed ‘”tinkering” with the educational system when in fact I would approach it with a flame thrower and rebuild it as it once was. You make the same case, albeit in nicer terms. But I’m an old troglodyte, so one doesn’t expect “warm & fuzzy” from me. 

    In a sense, controlling the terms of the debate is at the core of all this, and to do that you need to define those terms. If I understand your comments correctly, that is what you propose.

    Call it what you will, I would agree the nation needs to again learn what it means to be an American. Dennis Prager has spoken to this before, but that doesn’t make it any less crucil. We win ONLY if we teach people what they are losing.

    • #4
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:02 am
  5. Profile photo of genferei Member

    “We must study the best traditions for inspiration, while being open to the best innovations.”

    Burke and Mao. Aquinas and Lenin. The Federalist Papers and Saudi-financed wahhabist madrasas.

    • #5
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:03 am
  6. Profile photo of Karen Member

    This is why I love Ricochet. My husband and I were having a very similar discussion just now over dinner. But what does a renaissance look like? Where do we begin? Do we seek out redeeming aspects in our culture and build on those, or do we strive to create something new entirely? Maybe both?

    • #6
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:08 am
  7. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    genferei: “We must study the best traditions for inspiration, while being open to the best innovations.”

    Burke andMao. Aquinas andLenin. The Federalist Papers andSaudi-financed wahhabist madrasas. · in 1 minute

    I don’t see Mao, Lenin wahhabists in the light you imply. The unimaginable horrors and suffering created by Mao and Lenin are part of the missing history that I say in this article we must find – and learn from. I don’t use the word “best” rhetorically. I mean it in the non-relativist sense.

    • #7
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:08 am
  8. Profile photo of dittoheadadt Member

    How about we just figure out how to bypass the so-called mainstream media, and co-opt a couple of major outlets and clean house and make them genuine news outlets (neither right nor left), and take our message directly to the people without first having to be filtered/misrepresented/caricatured by the MSM? We’re not going to reinvent the schools, we’re not going to take over Hollywood. But we can bypass the current media with a 4-year multi-pronged approach and put our unfiltered message into the citizens’ hands. Unless we do that, everything else is just spinning our wheels. Futile.

    • #8
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:09 am
  9. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    Karen: This is why I love Ricochet. My husband and I were having a very similar discussion just now over dinner. But what does a renaissance look like? Where do we begin? Do we seek out redeeming aspects in our culture and build on those, or do we strive to create something new entirely? Maybe both? · 2 minutes ago

    I’d like to hear your thoughts on this. What do you and your husband think is the best beginning for our renaissance?

    • #9
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:12 am
  10. Profile photo of George Savage Admin

    Brilliant thesis, Anne. What we need seems the very opposite of where we’ve lately been heading: small ball, targeted messaging to the undecided Independent voter. Well, we won those voters the other day, lost the election anyway, and even if we’d won we weren’t addressing the issues at the very core of what ails our republic.

    I am most intimately familiar with this passage: But most parents seemed more concerned about their children’s outward displays of accomplishment than about their children’s actual moral and intellectual advancement. As long as their children were getting good grades, excelling in “activities,” and building good resumes, parents didn’t want to rock the boat.

    This is so true. The lesson for Silicon Valley teens is that rules don’t really apply so long as they keep an A average and are on track to attend one of the twenty-or-so colleges that everyone on earth yearns to attend, primarily for the branding effect.

    Our “best and brightest” may be stressed out habitual marijuana smokers, but they will soon have that Yale degree. 

    I spend most of my time as a parent combating this awful trend.

    • #10
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:16 am
  11. Profile photo of HVTs Member
    Anne R. Pierce: Pseudodionysius speaks for “the construction of new forms of community within which the moral life could be sustained so that both morality and civility might survive the coming ages of barbarism and darkness. ”

    Devereaux says, “Today we seem to be afraid of discussing things with our neighbors. But how else are we to speak to the issues and get people to think.”

    Both speak for community – so important. The founders realized the regime itself wasn’t enough. There was the issue of the kind of community in which the regime is bathed, situated. This seems a good beginning. Emphasize the community and contribute to it by expressing ideas and sticking to principles.

    The problem is the word “community” has been bastardized. From Clintonian “It takes a village” collectivism to Alinskyite-Obamist “Community Organizer” socialism, the word reeks of Leftist platitude. Can we save MacIntyre’s idea but lose the language? Also, as Pseudodionysius himself noted earlier, the Dark Ages is mythological. So we need to update MacIntyre’s whole construct here, no?

    None of which detracts from your wonderful article, Anne … thanks for on-point sustenance in an otherwise crappy week.

    • #11
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:18 am
  12. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    Percival: p

    Teach them history:all of it. Don’t bowdlerize the bad, but don’t excise the good, either. It is very hard to subjugate people who know that the blood of heroes courses through their veins.

    Oh, and math too – at least past the 7th grade level. · 35 minutes ago

    I couldn’t agree more. Isn’t it telling that Obama always talks about the need to shore up American competitiveness by better teaching math and science. There are better reasons for learning, and there is urgent fundamental reason for teaching history. One thing that worries me is that, with the lack of diaries, letters etc. to document history, it’s going to be even easier to re-write history now.

    • #12
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:23 am
  13. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    George Savage:

    I am most intimately familiar with this passage: But most parents seemed more concerned about their children’s outward displays of accomplishment than about their children’s actual moral and intellectual advancement. As long as their children were getting good grades, excelling in “activities,” and building good resumes, parents didn’t want to rock the boat.

    This is so true. The lesson for Silicon Valley teens is that rules don’t really apply so long as they keep an A average and are on track to attend one of the twenty-or-so colleges that everyone on earth yearns to attend, primarily for the branding effect.

    Our “best and brightest” may be stressed out habitual marijuana smokers, but they will soon have that Yale degree. 

    I spend most of my time as a parent combating this awful trend. · 2 minutes ago

    Thank you. It was concern for America’s over-scheduled, under-nurtured, mis-taught children that compelled me to deviate from my political/foreign policy roots and write Ships Without a Shore.

    • #13
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:25 am
  14. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    William McClain: Fantastic, and exactly what conservatism should be thinking aboutall the time.

    I think a big part of it will begin in a forgotten field, philosophy. The cultural dearth we experience now is as much a spiritual dearth, and the reduction of people’s spiritual lives into mere ideology. At the same time, speech and spiritual expression are reduced to merely ironic literature, open to “literature criticism” – as if my ideas were merely a bit of fiction to be assigned a cover value. These are the most deadening aspects of modern philosophy – the politicization of spirit and the economizing of ideas.

    To effect renaissance, conservative thinkers need to build real and meaningful critiques of these philosophical shortcomings that form the basis of new arts and sciences; the human spirit needs to be re-enlivened as something other than a “Zoon Politikon;” freedom and morality need to be seen as the crucially interdependent rather than seen at odds; language and ideas need to be given a new strength to stand in for the human personality.

    With a background in political philosophy as much as American foreign policy, I so agree. Your post brings to mind Revel’s Totalitarian Temptation.

    • #14
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:27 am
  15. Profile photo of The Mugwump Inactive

    I wish I had your optimism, dear lady. You will recall, however, that the European renaissance arrived after a thousand years of darkness. I’m more likely to take a monastic approach by preserving what we have for a future generation far down the road. But then I’m feeling maudlin today. The feeling may pass. Or maybe not.

    • #15
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:32 am
  16. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    ~Paules: I wish I had your optimism, dear lady. You will recall, however, that the European renaissance arrived after a thousand years of darkness. I’m more likely to take a monastic approach by preserving what we have for a future generation far down the road. But then I’m feeling maudlin today. The feeling may pass. Or maybe not. · 2 minutes ago

    Paules,

    I hear you. I’m holding onto my optimism with a thin thread.

    • #16
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:37 am
  17. Profile photo of Brian Clendinen Member
    Anne R. Pierce: Both speak for community – so important. The founders realized the regime itself wasn’t enough. There was the issue of the kind of community in which the regime is bathed, situated. This seems a good beginning. Emphasize the community and contribute to it by expressing ideas and sticking to principles. · 10 hours ago

    Yet as conservatives we do not live as we preach in politics. Yes I understand the federal goverment more than ever has so much impact on our communities yet it seems we ignore local politicls. Conservative Third parties try to become national players and it always seems local influce in politics is always secondary. Even here we talk about national politicls 80 to 90% of the time. It seems like California state politicas get a lot of play because so many of our pundents live their. However, that is only a small parts of state poltiics.

    I find it fustrating because the whole founding of our nation was started from the ground up in local communities. I 100% believe there can-not be real political change unless the radical beliefs starts at the local level first. It seems to always happen with progressive ideas.

    • #17
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:37 am
  18. Profile photo of Anne R. Pierce Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce Post author
    Devereaux: Once again, Ms. Pierce – smoking hot presentation. You might consider collecting these pieces you’ve submitted into a collection of essays.

    Elsewhere Rachel Lu has proposed ‘”tinkering” with the educational system when in fact I would approach it with a flame thrower and rebuild it as it once was. You make the same case, albeit in nicer terms. But I’m an old troglodyte, so one doesn’t expect “warm & fuzzy” from me. 

    In a sense, controlling the terms of the debate is at the core of all this, and to do that you need todefine those terms. If I understand your comments correctly, that is what you propose.

    Thanks, Devereaux. You do set up the challenge: How do we influence terms of the debate and at the same time deal with so much institutionalized, entrenched changing of and re-defining of the culture?

    • #18
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:42 am
  19. Profile photo of Indaba Member

    Rather than being permitted to appreciate that America, at its best, unleashes human potential and champions human rights, students are asked to identify their “cultural roots,” the implication being that any “roots” worth having are non-American ones.

    Agreed. As an immigrant myself, the last thing I wanted to do at high school is talk about my homeland. 

    Also, the American businesses in Zambia and Africa were shining lights on how to treat workers, how to do business and how to be part of a community.

    • #19
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:46 am
  20. Profile photo of RightinChicago Inactive

    I must point out, that we only got a Renaissance after a long period of the Dark and Middle Ages. If the U.S. is analagous to Rome, then first the U.S. must perish and plunge the world into barbarity before we can have a Renaissance. I truly fear that this is the only way. Republics all self-imolate.

    • #20
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:52 am
  21. Profile photo of goodburker Member

    I’m not sure how you change the education system while the teachers’ unions control who can and cannot teach. I think charter schools are a start, and must continue to be championed. But charter schools, too, are only as good as the curriculum, and the teachers teaching that curriculum. Maybe there needs to be a concerted, organized effort to create charter schools modeled on the classical curriculum(grammar, logic, rhetoric). Here’s one school that adopted a classical curriculum showcasing, what at first glance, appears to be impressive results: http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/classical-education-enlivens-denver-catholic-school/

    Dennis Prager had an idea, very much worth considering. Obama shrewdly focused on his constituencies: women, minority and youth votes, demonizing conservatism. And it worked.

    Taking just the youth vote for instance, he suggested that every time Obama visited a college campus, there should have been a representative from the conservative side who would appear afterwards to present the other argument. Using an “inkblot” approach, little by little, school by school you make the case for conservatism, and open the eyes of these young men and women that they are being played by the left.

    • #21
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:53 am
  22. Profile photo of Devereaux Inactive
    Anne R. Pierce
    Devereaux: In a sense, controlling the terms of the debate is at the core of all this, and to do that you need todefine those terms. If I understand your comments correctly, that is what you propose.

    Thanks, Devereaux. You do set up the challenge: How do we define terms of the debate and at the same time deal with so much institutionalized, entrenched definition of terms? · 0 minutes ago

    Well, let me give my very small contribution. In my old Guard unit I deecided that there was not enough discussion of current affairs (think Lincoln-Douglas and the crowds that attended to listen). So I instituted 30 minutes every Sun morning of drill when we “discussed”some current topic. Took a little prodding from the boss, but it took off and soon I didn’t need to needle anyone to contribute to the discussion.

    Today we seem to be afraid of discussing things with our neighbors. ?But how else are we to speak to the issues and get people to think.

    Just a thought.

    • #22
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:55 am
  23. Profile photo of Indaba Member
    Anne R. Pierce
    Karen: This is why I love Ricochet. My husband and I were having a very similar discussion just now over dinner. But what does a renaissance look like? Where do we begin? Do we seek out redeeming aspects in our culture and build on those, or do we strive to create something new entirely? Maybe both? · 2 minutes ago

    I’d like to hear your thoughts on this. What do you and your husband think is the best beginning for our renaissance? · 33 minutes ago

    Taking a leaf out the Lefties book and advocating for curriculum Content. 

    Here in Canada, we have health studies. In Grade 5, the curriculum gets the students to put condoms on cucumbers. My son told me about this. I was on the Parents Association and put together a request that the math course teach how to do a 20 year budget for a baby growing up, and that the boys were made aware that they will have their wages garnished to pay child support. I asked that it get linked to love and to marriage and to family.

    I also suggested that it might be intimidating to demonstrate on a cucumber :>)

    • #23
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:58 am
  24. Profile photo of Pseudodionysius Inactive

    a thousand years of darkness.

    The Dark Ages are a myth. 

    • #24
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:58 am
  25. Profile photo of MJBubba Member

    The progressive domination of big education is having an unexpected outcome in my part of flyover country. My sons and their college-age buddies are becoming more libertarian. Their minds have been poisoned against my social conservative religion, but they realize that they are being manipulated by an intellectually bankrupt left. The direction they are headed in is more like western libertarianism; socially liberal and fiscally conservative.

    • #25
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:59 am
  26. Profile photo of Layla Member
    Schrodinger’s Cat: I am with those who believe we need the existing system to rot and collapse before a renaissance can begin. However, those who are providing their children with a classical education are doing an invaluable service, similar to the monastic system which harbored much classical knowledge through the dark age. · 10 hours ago

    That’s where I am, Cat. Like so many other conservative households, my husband and I also had the Post-Election Talk and determined that the Republic’s current trajectory renders our classical homeschooling even more vital. The Good, the True, and the Beautiful–Latin, Greek, maths, logic, and rhetoric: It’s what for school.

    We tend to recoil at anything that smacks of elitism, but a wise friend once encouraged me in classical education by saying, ” If we want our children to be lords, give them a lordly education. If we want them to be serfs and helots, send them to school and don’t think twice about it.” Harsh? Yes. True? I think maybe so.

    • #26
    • November 9, 2012 at 6:59 am
  27. Profile photo of Pseudodionysius Inactive

    Remember, we’ve been through this before:

    “The failure of medieval Christendom was not a function of the demonstrated or demonstrable falsity of central doctrinal truth claims of the Christian faith … It was, at root, a botching of moral execution, a failure to practice what was preached.” – Brad Gregory, “The Unintended Reformation”

    “We are waiting, not for another political savior or television personality, but for a Dominic or a Francis, an Ignatius or a Wesley, a Wilberforce or a Newman, a Bonhoeffer or a Solzhenitsyn. Only sanctity can justify Christianity’s existence; only sanctity can make the case for faith; only sanctity, or the hope thereof, can ultimately redeem the world.” – Ross Douthat, “Bad Religion”

    Where did I dig them up? From a September column written by Philadelphia Archbishop Chaput called How we got where we are, and the value of the past. Here’s the money quote:

    In early September, the Gallup Organization found that 60 percent of Americans – a record high — have little or no trust in the mass media’s ability “to report the news fully, accurately and fairly.” The sharpest decline in trust occurred among political independents, the least partisan American voters.

    • #27
    • November 9, 2012 at 7:06 am
  28. Profile photo of Mollie Hemingway Contributor

    Just tonight at dinner, I told my husband that the only thing I’m really certain of right now is that we’ll continue to do whatever it takes to give our children a Classical education. You’ve explained very well why it is that we work so hard to do that.

    • #28
    • November 9, 2012 at 7:08 am
  29. Profile photo of Indaba Member
    MJBubba: The progressive domination of big education is having an unexpected outcome in my part of flyover country. My sons and their college-age buddies are becoming more libertarian. Their minds have been poisoned against my social conservative religion, but they realize that they are being manipulated by an intellectually bankrupt left. The direction they are headed in is more like western libertarianism; socially liberal and fiscally conservative. · 0 minutes ago

    My sons are also questioning left ideas presented to them at school, but they know how to “pour on the honey” to get the required marks. #1 son is at university and tells me he is was looking forward to battling lefties but since he is at a primarily business school, there is not much of that. He does get to debate and Ricochet topics have been dinner conversation for a few years so he can quote Hume, Jefferson, Adam Smith, etc. and argue a conservative view.

    I already showed this but here is the cover of this week’s left/center newsmagazine with an article that takes Lefty teachers and their ideologies and dumps them upside down on their heads. 

    a-macleans.jpg

    • #29
    • November 9, 2012 at 7:11 am
  30. Profile photo of Edmund Alexander Inactive

    I’ve often thought that the Cold War ended much like Gladiator: the Commodus collapsed first, but only after he given a lethal poison to Maximus. In our case, the USSR collapsed before we did, but they’d managed to poison the US via the socialist ideas and moral relativism pumped into the US education system and entertainment industry.

    It makes me sad how much learning is slipping away from us because we don’t value it for the sake that we refuse to identify with the “dead white men” that produced it. It’s not greatly unlike the disdain for Greco-Roman arts and sciences in the hands of barbarians. We destroy what we fail to appreciate.

     An architect friend of mine told me that the use of concrete was lost for over a millennium. While people have pointed to a handful of structures that showed its use, it was nevertheless largely forgotten or abandoned for the bulk of that time in favor of inferior processes like the use of mortar. It’s terrifying to imagine that we could be headed down a similar road of abandonment and social decay.

    • #30
    • November 9, 2012 at 7:11 am
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